A study of income generation policies

But when it comes to their future, and the future of the country, they are a deeply pessimistic generation. EY and EIG conducted a new national public opinion survey of 1, Millennials to gauge their views on a variety of issues related to the economy at all levels—personal, local, and national—and the challenges they face almost seven years into the recovery from the Great Recession.

A study of income generation policies

Current land policy issues in Ethiopia - B. The data show that access to land has considerable influence on household income and food security, to the extent that small farm sizes appear to be one of the major constraints for farm development and intensification efforts.

Farmers placed more emphasis on tenure security rather than on type of ownership per se.

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Ways must be sought to provide better tenure security of land holdings. Given the growing population pressure, increasing number of landless households and limited access to land, encouraging the development of the nonagricultural employment sector is crucial.

This partly explains why land-related issues usually generate intense emotional reactions. Obviously, for rural residents of most developing countries, land is the primary means of production used to generate a livelihood for a family.

It is also the main asset that farmers have to accumulate wealth and, equally importantly, is what they can transfer in the form of wealth to future generations.

Accordingly, land policy in developing countries is a crucial, albeit sensitive, part of the overall development policy that governments need to consider if rapid economic growth and poverty alleviation are to be achieved. Although there is wide recognition regarding the importance of land policy in agrarian development, there is no clear and universally applicable blueprint as to what an appropriate land policy should be.

This is partly because the efficacy of land policy in encouraging agricultural development depends on sociocultural and geographical variables that significantly differ from country to country.

Introduction: Facts about income inequality and its growth over time

In a number of cases, even within one country, various types of landholding system exist depending upon historical factors and the farming systems that have prevailed in the different regions.

Despite these differences, however, using established theories, behavioral assumptions regarding economic agents and on experience from other countries, researchers have tried to define certain basic principles and thereby achieve a land policy that will generate higher levels of productivity in agriculture while also maintaining considerations of equity.

However, even these principles will change with time as A study of income generation policies information is gathered from other countries.

If we take the World Bank land policy paper as a starting point, three basic principles should be considered in informing any land policy.

At that time, the World Bank believed that a owneroperated family farms were efficient and thus desirable, b there should be freely operating land markets to permit land transfers to more efficient and productive users and c there was a need for a more equitable distribution of assets Deininger and Binswanger, These principles are still considered to be largely valid.

However, based on experience from various countries that have subsequently implemented land reforms, a number of amendments were made to this position including: Although the benefits of formal land markets have been recognized, its full potential can be secured only if other factor markets are equally and effectively operational in rural areas.

Recent research has also recognized the importance of decentralized administration of land-related issues. What is significant in these findings is that whereas there are certain agreed objectives such as efficiency and equity and principles security of tenure that should inform land policy, the modalities of a landholding system in a specific country could and should take in to account the specific conditions prevailing in that country in order to achieve the stated objectives of providing a decent living to the farming population.

One development in the last few decades that has been recognized is the degree to which the importance of overtly ideological considerations have been relegated to the background in land policy debates. This should certainly help in allowing a more reasoned discussion about appropriate land tenure arrangements that take into account the specific circumstances of each country; in addition this will reduce any politicization of the issues thereby overly complicating the search for a viable solution.

Accordingly, with ideology consigned to the background, many countries are now boldly addressing the issue of land reforms. In the last two decades, most countries in sub-Saharan Africa have been variously undertaking land reform in one way or another.

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The aims of most of these reforms have been to promote productivity in agriculture and thereby generate rapid economic growth, encourage a more sustainable management and reduce poverty.

In relation to reducing rural poverty, access to land is recognized in most of these reforms as of special significance in the absence of alternative employment opportunities in the non-agricultural sectors of the economy Toulmin and Quan, The reasons behind the lack of government interest in alternative tenure regimes are not that the current policy essentially serves the interest of agricultural development better than its alternatives.

Neither is it because there are no critics who argue that the existing land tenure system in the country falls significantly short of satisfying some of the basic principles of land tenure outlined above.

In terms of the performance of the agricultural sector since the reform, it is well known that the sector has been performing badly.

The entire sector grew at an average of 2 percent per annum between and the fall of the Derge Ethiopian Military Junta regime in Part of this poor performance is explained by the numerous restrictive regulations imposed by the Derge regime, including price fixing, forced creation of cooperatives, and preferential treatment to cooperatives and state farms at the expense of smallholders.

A study of income generation policies

Unfortunately, the performance of the sector did not improve much even after some of these egregious restrictions were lifted following the reforms of the current government. In an attempt to explain this lacklustre performance, the EEA report cited above and a number of other studies e.

This research involved three steps. First was a survey of the literature on the economics of land policy in general and the land tenure systems under different regimes in the country since the period of colonial rule.

The second part of the research, which is more relevant to this paper, involved a large survey of farm households in all regions of the country except for Gambella to solicit a wide variety of information from farmers regarding size of holding, farm and non-farm income, their opinion of the current land tenure arrangement and their preferred alternatives, etc.

This was an extensive survey that involved more than 8 households in eight regions of the country. This paper provides results from this survey towards answering questions raised in the current debate on land policy issues in the country.

The third part of the report looks at the opinion of experts in the field researchers, government operatives, extension agents, etc. The paper is organized into five sections. The next briefly outlines those land tenure systems that have been in use since the period of colonial rule, followed by a brief discussion of the impact of these policies on resource allocation and agricultural development in the country based on available literature.

A study of income generation policies

The fourth and main part of the paper discusses findings from the rural household survey by looking at pertinent variables related to land policy and rural incomes. This section also discusses the various arguments presented in support of or against the current land policy in light of the survey findings.Therefore, increased income may drive a reduction in the generation of medical wastes.

An empirical study by Lu et al. () found that the education level may . Table Households' participation in income-generating activities and share of incomes across zones Table Poor and non-poor households' participation in income-generating activities across zones Table Share of different income sources for the poor .

Executive summary

I Introduction Racial disparities are among the most visible and persistent features of American society. For example, in , the median household income of black Americans was $39,, compared with.

Mar 19,  · A study of 20 million children shows the fragility of the American Dream. Individual New Generation Project Study achievement means by income means Education There was a slight increase in participation in adult education in the non-earnings supplement programs. As the United States rapidly becomes both a more diverse and unequal nation, policymakers face the urgent challenge of confronting growing wealth gaps by race and ethnicity.

To create a more equitable and secure future, we must shift away from public policies that fuel and exacerbate racial disparities in .

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