Since I am not taking your course and since I do not know how you saw policing, I cannot answer the rest of the question for you. In this style, the police tend to act very informally.
Proactive policing simply refers to measures taken to deter crime or to eliminate or minimize the causes of crime. In that general sense, proactive policing is eminently worthwhile.
For example, a regular police presence at a particular intersection deters traffic violations that would otherwise occur. There is a very fundamental distinction between proactive and reactive policing, with the former subject to controversy because of the nature of some police tactics that may be employed.
Similarly, a regular police presence in certain neighborhoods minimizes the prospect of a crime occurring in those neighborhoods.
Such proactive policing, then, is praiseworthy. The controversies arise when proactive policing extends to such measures as racial profiling, in which individuals are subjected to questioning or body- and car-searches solely on the basis of their ethnicity. Profiling is intended to prevent crimes by targeting individuals who "fit the profile" of those statistically more likely to commit a crime.
Such tactics, however, often cross a boundary into unconstitutional procedures that may prevent a crime but that also victimize individuals who are not criminals but who merely meet the physical description of the category of individual statistically more likely to commit a crime.
The Fourth Amendment of the U. Constitution protects Americans against "unreasonable searches and seizures," and proactive policing risks violating that fundamental tenet of civil liberties. In contrast to proactive policing, reactive policing refers to the normal practice among law enforcement agencies of responding to crimes that are in motion or that have already occurred, such as reports of a burglary, rape or murder.
Criminal investigations involve crimes that have already occurred, and forensic investigators exist to examine the physical evidence associated with the crime, such as hair fibers left by a rapist or murderer, fingerprints left by a careless burglar, and so on.
In short, both proactive and reactive policing are integral to the mission of police departments, but the former can rest on more tenuous propositions if certain tactics intended to prevent crime cross the line into unconstitutionality.One of the earliest and major tactics of community policing involved officers going on foot patrols through the neighborhoods they serve.
In today’s modern era, this has evolved to departments incorporating social media and/or community engagement systems to . The Nature of the Police. The police decide which laws to enforce, a process known as discretion. James Q. Wilson identified three styles of policing: watchman style, legalistic style, and service style.
The watchman style distinguishes between two mandates of policing: order maintenance and . Transcript of Three Eras of Policing. Reform Era The Three Eras of American Policing The Political Era Paid fairly well, $20 a week.
|THREE ERA'S OF POLICING by Kesha Aquino on Prezi||Gary Potter Maintaining a stable and disciplined work force for the developing system of factory production and ensuring a safe and tranquil community for the conduct of commerce required an organized system of social control. The developing profit-based system of production antagonized social tensions in the community.|
Intimate relationship with community Bribery was common. Patrolled on foot. Strategic goal was to satisfy citizens and political bosses. Balko’s writing on early American policing can be reinforced by the work of academic historian Alfred W.
McCoy, whose Policing America’s Empire: The United States, the Philippines, and the Rise of the Surveillance State (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, ) covers far more ground than the title might suggest, including an account.
The Three Eras of US Policing • Throughout US history there has been three major paradigm shifts in the evolution of policing. – The Political Era – The Reform Era – The Community Era. The Political Era • Began with the origins of early American police organizations in the s. The Progressive Movement eventually needed the New Deal to save the country.
The two movements were different in that one was a conscious movement toward a booming economy, The Progressive Movement, while the other was a response to a crashing and poor time, The New Deal.