Etymology[ edit ] The term biological diversity was used first by wildlife scientist and conservationist Raymond F. Dasmann in the year lay book A Different Kind of Country  advocating conservation. The term was widely adopted only after more than a decade, when in the s it came into common usage in science and environmental policy. Thomas Lovejoyin the foreword to the book Conservation Biology,  introduced the term to the scientific community.
The Natural Resource Institute aims to enhance the productive capacity of the renewable natural resources sector in developing countries by conducting appropriate research and developmental activities funded in large part by Aid agencies. These include basic and applied research projects and development projects in the areas of natural resources, environmental science, pest control, food storage and social development.
The Institute comprises of a Directorate and the following Five Departments: As a Pharmacologist by first degree he started his research career by testing plants fractions for the medicinal value. Subsequently, he conducted extensive research on tropical commodities to determine the intrinsic and extrinsic toxicological and anti-nutritioinal principles present in them, with the objective of developing detoxification methods to render these safe for inclusion in animal feeds that could be cost-effectively utilised by resource-poor farmers.
In recent years he has studied Environmental Science and examined practical concepts for environmentally sustainable agriculture in developing countries. Practical strategies for the conservation of plant biodiversity must be at the root of any long term plans for agricultural development, and as Conservation biodiversity and natural resources Dr Panigrahi is working on various concepts in this field including the project proposal and associated complementary projects.
In addition, he is assisting the main author, Dr G. This book, which is three-quarters complete, aims to provide information on medicinal and other uses for around species in addition to the information available on their genetics and distribution outside India, and correcting nomenclatural anomalies in accordance with the latest Codes.
Dr S Panigrahi has appropximately 40 scientific publications, and much unpublished experimental data. If so, please give details. The applicant has known about the Darwin Initiative since the Earth Summit inand has previously considered proposals for conservation of agricultural biodiversity.
However, no proposals were previously prepared for submission. Developing countries, mainly of the British Commonwealth, Eastern Europe 1. Please note that while short pamphlets may be useful, the Department does not wish to receive books or lengthy reports.
To be filled in by Research Co-ordinator 2.
Please be as explicit as possible. How is the project related to conservation priorities in the host Conservation biodiversity and natural resources ies How is the project intended to assist the host country with its obligations under the Biodiversity Convention?
Concept The concept underlying this proposal is the conservation of useful plant biodiversity with specific reference to how resource-poor farmers in the Eastern India and Bangladesh may value and use this in their day-to-day lives.
To achieve this a package of research and developmental activities is required. The present proposal aims to start this process by preparing an inventory of plants for the region, developing a methodology for their valuation in relation to medicinal, veterinary and agricultural applications and use of leaves as fodder by farmers, and preparing a plan for conservation.
This is expected to produced long term developmental benefits in the region and assist in the conservation of plant biodiversity. This is a major undertaking and is expected to lead to the development of a conservation reserves for plants used in traditional medicine.
However, medicinal plants are just one aspect of conservation of biodiversity based on use values, and will be financially beneficial for pharmaceutical companies and government revenues in the main.
This programme is unlikely to produced major direct financial benefit to resource-poor farmers who, due to a diminishing land availability for cultivation, need to carefully select and conserve from ethnobotanical species with diverse uses those that are likely to generate or save most income for them.
The uses may be medicinal, veterinary, agricultural, fodder, timber, firewood, and often plants will be selected for multipurposes the valuation of which is complicated.
For each plant judgments would need to be made as to which are conserved as local common property resources for the communitiy and which should be growin within individual farming systems. This project aims to prepare an initial list of such plant biodiversity for one geo-climatic region since to cover the whole subcontinent in a single project will be too great an undertaking.
The states of West Bengal up to the foothills of the Himalayas, Meghalaya, Tripura and Bangladesh has therefore been selected to assess the biodiversity of economically-useful plants with potential for conservation within smallholder farmings systems.
Technical background Plants have diverse uses and the continued destruction of native habitat harbouring plant biodiversity, there is an emerging consensus for a new strategy for conservation of economically useful diversity in natural habitats, in specially-created reserves and in the farming systems of resource-poor farmers.
Of significant importance is the fact that plant species exploited for economic value have a finite life in the face of genetic erosion, pests, diseases and climate change so that the maintenance of within species diversity for each useful plant is vital for long term conservation.
Research methodologies and strategies to determine the economic value of plant biodiversity in terms of the uses that can be made by resource-poor farmers in farming systems under different agro-climatic zones have, however, not kept pace with this concern with conservation. The research proposed here is part of a programme of work envisaged to assist in this valuation and then in developing appropriate strategies and associated tools required for useful biodiversity conservation.
The present project proposal aims to start this programme in a poor area of the developing world Eastern India and Bangladesh. In the first phase that is proposed here up-to-date data will be collected in this region to improve the information base on useful plant species with potential for conservation within smallholder farming systems and as local common property resources for rural communities, depending on the nature of local demand and species agronomically suited to the region.
Following identification of high priority species, a conservation plan will be developed for maintaining special reserves of these species that will act as a source of germplasm for the rural communities.
Complementary projects proposed for funding from other sources i A methodology for valuation of plant biodiversity that takes appropriate account of local demand for food, medicines, pesticides, fodder, timber, firewood, does not exist, and is a necessary tool to aid research and development on the conservation of biodiversity.
A separate project will be undertaken with funding from other sources to develop such tool. In this project, a manual of bioassays will be compiled and new ones developed, where necessary to enable periodic checks to be made that species are maintaining the bio-activity for which they are conserved, for example, anti-viral or anti-cancer activity, cardioactivity, diuretic activity, various hormonal mimicking activity, etc.
Particular note is taken for the need to make these bioassays easy to apply on a routine basis in the botanic reserves of developing country laboratories. Thus, the present project proposal should be seen as forming part of a strategy and a long-term programme of research that adopts a novel approach to the conservation of tropical plant biodiversity specific to the needs of resource-poor farmers in developing countries.
How does the project relate to the Darwin principles? How would the project be advertised as a Darwin project and in what ways would the Darwin name and logo be used?30+ Terrific Ways To Conserve Natural Resources.
Natural resources are utilized by human beings either directly or indirectly for survival. The examples of natural resources are air, soil, water, sunshine, coal, plants, animals, and minerals. 4 Foreword In situ conservation is regarded as one of the most important tools for the conservation of biodiversity and protected areas are the essential components of in situ conservation.
Feb 12, · This paper will discuss a new paradigm, ‘ecoagriculture’: integrated conservation–agriculture landscapes in which biodiversity conservation is an explicit objective of agriculture and rural development, and the latter are explicitly considered in shaping conservation .
Conservation and Use of Natural Resources BIOLOGY Notes MODULE - 4 Environment and conservation of natural resources through prevention of resource ever exploitation (biodiversity). zto make the resources available for present and future generations. Conservation may refer to the preservation or efficient use of resources (in an efficient or ethical manner), or the conservation of various quantities under physical laws..
Conservation may refer more specifically to. Conservation (ethic) of biodiversity, environment, and natural resources, including protection and management Conservation-restoration of cultural heritage, protection and. Conserving natural resources and biodiversity is a core principle of organic production.
This final guidance provides organic certifiers and farms with examples of production practices that support conservation principles and comply with the USDA organic regulations, which require operations to maintain or improve natural resources.