Terms for kinds of grammatical construction in which reports are made of something said, written, or thought. Indirect speech conveys the report in the words of the reporter: The reporting verb is sometimes put before the subject, particularly when it is said and the subject is not a pronoun: Some writers use such variants and additions liberally, others with great restraint.
After Swartz committed suicide earlier this year in the face of legal troubles arising from this incident, questions were raised about why MIT, whose access to JSTOR he exploited, chose to pursue charges, and what motivated the US Department of Justice to demand jail time for his transgression.
But the question that should have been asked is why downloading scholarly research articles was a crime in the first place. Why, twenty years after the birth of the modern Internet, is it a felony to download works that academics chose to share with the world?
The Internet, after all, was invented so that scientists could communicate their research results with each other.
But while you can now get immediate, free access to million videos of cats I checked this number todaythe scholarly literature — one of greatest public works projects of all time — remains locked behind expensive pay walls.
Even worse, the stranglehold existing journals have on academic publishing has stifled efforts to improve the ways scholars communicate with each other and the public.
In an era when anyone can share anything with the entire world at the click of a button, the fact that it takes a typical paper nine months to be published should be a scandal.
These delays matter — they slow down progress and in many cases literally cost lives. Tonight, I will describe how we got to this ridiculous place. How twenty years of avarice from publishers, conservatism from researchers, fecklessness from universities and funders, and a basic lack of common sense from everyone has made the research community and public miss the manifest opportunities created by the Internet to transform how scholars communicate their ideas and discoveries.
I will also talk about what some of us have been doing to liberate the scholarly literature — where we have succeeded and where there is more work to be done. And finally, with these efforts gaining traction, I will describe where we are going next.
While I talk, I want you to keep in mind that this is about more than just academic publications.
This is about the future of the Internet and what we are willing to do, as individuals and societies, to ensure that information that should be free IS free. One last bit of introduction. I am a scientist, and so, for the rest of this talk, I am going to focus on the scientific literature.
But everything I will say holds equally true for other areas of scholarship. Most people date the birth of the modern scientific journal to the middle of the 17th century, when the Royal Society in England took advantage of the growing printing industry to begin publishing proceedings of their meetings for the benefit of members unable to attend, as well as for posterity.
But scholarly journals as we know them were really a product of the 19th century, when growing activity and public interest in science led to the creation of most of the big titles we know about today: They had noble missions. Like their predecessor, these journals were enabled by the technologies of the industrial revolution — steam powered rotary printing presses and efficient rail-based mail service.
But they were also severely limited by them. Printing and shipping articles around the country and the world was expensive, and because of this, two key features of modern journals were established.
First, journals limited what they printed, choosing for publication only those works deemed to be of the greatest interest to their target audience.
And second, they sold subscriptions — sending copies only to those who had paid. While intrinsically restricting, this business arrangement made sense. Every printed copy of a journal incurred a cost to the publisher, and charging readers meant revenues scaled with costs.
As science grew, so too did science publishing, with increasingly specific journals emerging to cater to new disciplines. By there were around 5, scientific journals in circulation, all of them printed and shipped to subscribers.This webpage is for Dr. Wheeler's literature students, and it offers introductory survey information concerning the literature of classical China, classical Rome, classical Greece, the Bible as Literature, medieval literature, Renaissance literature, and genre studies.
Mar 08, · using direct speech in a composition The sentence and the paragraph are the basic tools of composition writing. Using them in different ways, you can turn out letters, factual essays, descriptive essays, argued essays and short lausannecongress2018.com: englisphere.
DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH Also direct speech, reported speech. Terms for kinds of grammatical construction in which reports are made of something said, written, or thought.
Direct SPEECH gives the exact words in the report, and in writing and print uses QUOTATION MARKS. When using indirect or reported speech, the form changes.
Usually indirect speech is introduced by the verb said, as in I said, Bill said, or they said. Using the verb say in this tense indicates that something was said in the past.
In these cases, the main verb in the reported sentence is put in the past. 1. Fault, failing, foible, weakness, vice imply shortcomings or imperfections in a person. Fault is the common word used to refer to any of the average shortcomings of a person; when it is used, condemnation is not necessarily implied: Of his many faults the greatest is vanity.
Foible, failing, weakness all tend to excuse the person referred to. Of these foible is the mildest, suggesting a. Direct Speech and Indirect Speech "While direct speech purports to give a verbatim rendition of the words that were spoken, indirect speech is more variable in claiming to represent a faithful report of the content or content .