Their regime had been just as corrupt as that of the Despensers but less constructive. Medieval warfare occasionally involved pitched battles that could be decisive. More frequently, however, warfare consisted of long and costly sieges conducted against important fortified cities.
Next lecture Few issues in modern history have received as much attention as assigning responsibility for the outbreak of the World War in The debate began during the war itself as each side tried to lay blame on the other, became part of the "war guilt" question afterwent through a phase of revisionism in the s, and was revived in the s thanks to the work of Fritz Fischer.
This lecture also deals with the causes of World War I, but does so from a Balkan perspective.
Certainly Great Power tensions were widespread inand those tensions caused the rapid spread of the war after it broke out, but many previous Great Power crises had been resolved without war. Why did this particular episode, a Balkan crisis that began with a political murder in Bosnia, prove so unmanageable and dangerous?
Some questions will help to frame our inquiry: What was the purpose of the assassination of Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo on June 28, ? Who was responsible for the killing, besides the assassins themselves?
Was a war inevitable after the murder, or did policy-makers let the crisis escape their control? Finally, why did a Balkan crisis lead to a world war inwhen other crises had not? Focusing on the Balkans From a Balkan perspective, it is crucial to look at the actors and decision-makers who were at work during the conflict between Austria-Hungary and Serbia, the two states involved in the original Sarajevo crisis.
Doing so highlights factors that are somewhat different from those at work among the Great Powers at large, or those cited in general explanations for the war.
A common theme is the passive nature of Great Power policy: With some justification, scholars conclude that French leaders had little choice: France was the object of a German invasion.
England in turn entered the war because a successful German attack on France and Belgium would have made Germany too powerful. Both Germany and Russia mobilized their armies in haste, because each one feared defeat by powerful enemies if they delayed.
Germany and Russia also rashly committed themselves to support Balkan clients -- Austria-Hungary and Serbia, respectively -- because Berlin and St.
Petersburg feared that failure to do so would cost them the trust of important allies and leave them isolated. This interpretation treats Balkan matters largely through their influence on policies elsewhere. An analysis rooted in a Balkan perspective, on the other hand, can evaluate the proactive steps taken in the region from the start of the crisis.
Unfortunately, when Austrians, Hungarians and Serbs made important decisions early in the crisis, they consistently avoided compromise and risked war.
Two months passed between the murder of Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by a Bosnian Serb high school student on June 28, and the coming of general war at the end of August. In other words, there was plenty of time for calculation, caution and decision.
Who chose to risk war, and why? The purpose of the murder itself The murder itself was hardly a mystery. There were scores of witnesses and the killers were immediately arrested: The conspirators willingly confessed: Nor was the fact of murder per se crucial.
It was an age of assassins: Franz Joseph's wife, the Empress Elizabeth, had been murdered in in Switzerland by an Italian, but Austria did not seek war with Italy or Switzerland. A look at the actual participants tells us something about South Slav nationalist dissatisfaction in Habsburg-ruled Bosnia.Logically, resources during wartime should focus predominately on the war effort (Man power, materials, etc.), this proved to be one of the principal reasons behind Hollywood’s continued prominence during that .
The War Works Hard. How magnificent the war is! How eager and efficient! Early in the morning, it wakes up the sirens and dispatches ambulances to various places, swings corpses through the air, rolls stretchers to the wounded, summons rain from the eyes of mothers, digs into the earth.
Why Trump’s trade war is a blessing in disguise for Chinese leaders.
Tariffs and the US president’s bluster are tightening the screw, but could be a much-needed reminder of China’s real. Although federal authorities first targeted Arabs, Muslims, and South Asians in the aftermath of 9/11, the “war on terror” has had an impact on all immigrants regardless of ethnicity or legal status—including Latin American immigrants, particularly Mexicans, who comprise the majority of immigration detainees.
Dunya Mikhail is the author of several books, including The Iraqi Nights (New Directions, ); Diary of a Wave Outside the Sea (New Directions, ), winner of the Arab American Book Award for Poetry; and The War Works Hard (New Directions, ).
Her honors include the Kresge Artist Fellowship and the United Nations Human Rights . Essays & Papers The War Works Hard Analysis - Paper Example The War Works Hard Analysis Through satire and irony using her perspective as an Iraqi woman, Dunya Mikhail personifies war as a machine, rather than the traditional masculine perspective of heroism on the battlefield - The War Works Hard Analysis introduction.